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Cameras#

Cameras are items simulating a lens that defines the viewpoint from which the scene is rendered. In the same way there are different type of lenses, there are also many types of cameras and each one defines a projection according to the simulated lens.

Perspective Camera#

The Perspective Camera simulates a basic pinhole camera which is controlled by a single attribute Field of View. It is possible to enable depth of field by toggling Enable Dof attribute. Depth of field is controlled using the F Stop attribute and the focus can be either set using Focus Distance or a Focus Object.

Perspective Camera

Depth of Field with a very small F Stop to simulate tilt shift lens

Perspective Advanced Camera#

The Perspective Advanced Camera, as its name suggests, complements the Perspective Camera by offering more advanced controls over the projection.

Note

Alembic and USD cameras both offers the same attributes as Perspective Advanced Camera since they both inherit from it.

Field of View/Aperture#

There are different ways to control the field of view of the projection. It can either be achieved by manipulating the aperture and the focal length of the lens or by modifying the field of view attributes. Both sets of attributes are linked together. If you manipulating the aperture and focal length attributes it will recompute the field of view attributes. In the same way, if you modify the field of view attributes, it will update the aperture and focal length ones.

Attribute Description
Horizontal Aperture Define the horizontal size (width) of the camera sensor
Vertical Aperture Define the vertical size (height) of the camera sensor
Focal Length Define the focal length of the lens
Horizontal Field of View Define the horizontal field of view of the projection
Vertical Field of View Define the vertical field of view of the projection

Film Offset#

The Film Offset attribute defines the offset of the camera sensor to the lens.

Lens Ratio#

The Lens Ratio attribute defines the amount the lens compresses the image horizontally. It basically affects the pixel aspect ratio of the render.

Fit Mode#

The Fit Mode attribute allows you to have control over the the pixel aspect ratio of the rendered image.

Fit Mode Description
Horizontal Perform a horizontal fit on the rendered image.
Vertical Perform a vertical fit on the rendered image.
Remap Stretch the pixel aspect ratio so that both horizontal and vertical field of views fit in the rendered image resolution.
Fill Automatically perform an horizontal or vertical fit on the rendered image.

Fish Eye#

The Fish Eye Camera simulates a fish-eyes type lens which is controlled by a single attribute: Field of View.

Field Of View set to 45

Field Of View set to 90

Field Of View set to 135

Field Of View set to 180

Orthographic#

The Orthographic Camera defines an orthographic projection. The projection of the camera is controlled by the size attribute which defines the area of the projection. The projection also takes into account the scale of the camera which modifies the pixel aspect ratio.

Render using an Orthographic Camera

Orthographic Camera

Since there's no front and back culling, it is recommended to use the Near Clip and Far Clip attributes of the render/layer scenes to avoid overlaps.

Setting properly Near and Far Clip removes the overlaps in the previous render

Setting properly Near and Far Clip

Panoramic#

The Panoramic Camera defines an panoramic projection which can render the scene in 360 degrees. This camera can be used to create HDR probes from a scene or for VR applications since it supports multiple stereoscopic modes and users can control parallax. The projection of the camera is controlled by the horizontal and vertical field of views.

Paroramic Camera

Render using a Paroramic Camera

Attribute Description
Horizontal Field of View Define the horizontal field of view of the projection
Vertical Field of View Define the vertical field of view of the projection
Stereoscopic Mode Enable stereoscopic rendering. See Stereoscopic Modes section for more information
Eye Separation Distance Define the distance between the two eyes.
Parallax Mode Enable the off axis mode. For more information please refer to Parallax section.
Parallax Distance Set the parallax distance.
Parallax Object Set an item which defines the parallax distance.

Stereoscopic Modes#

The Panoramic Camera supports stereoscopic projections which makes it useful for VR applications. Stereoscopic modes are controlled using the Stereoscopic Mode and Eye Separation Distance attributes. It is also possible to define the master eye for camera projections using stereoscopic cameras by going to Edit > Preferences... > Rendering and setting Projection Master Eye to either Left or Right.

Mode Description
Center Stereoscopic rendering is disabled.
Side By Side Left and right eye images are rendered side by side
Over Under (R/L) Right and left eye images are rendered on top of each other (right eye image being on top of left)
Over Under (L/R) Left and right eye images are rendered on top of each other (left eye image being on top of right)
Left Eye Render the left eye image
Right Eye Render the right eye image

Side By Side

Over Under L/R

Parallax#

By default, the projection of the two eyes are parallel to each other. It is possible to control the focus point by setting Parallel Mode to Off-Axis and setting either the Parallel Distance to the camera or a Parallel Object which acts as the focus point.

Parallax Distance 50m

Parallax Distance 300m